Research Articles

India - Andaman Islands, India
Cesiribacter andamanensis

South Tonga Arc
Fe-oxidizing bacteria - metabolize Iron (Fe)

Fe-rich hydrothermal sediments at two South Tonga Arc submarine volcanoes.

New Zealand: Kermadec Arc.
Fe-oxidizing bacterium 'Mariprofundus ferrooxydans'

iron-containing flocculent mats associated with submarine volcanoes  along the Kermadec Arc

Eastern Mediterranean
(Nile Deep Sea Fan, Eastern Mediterranean).
iron sulfur
related to 'Ca. Arcobacter sulfidicus'
similar neutrophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing betaproteobacterium Leptothrix ochracea

Biogeochemistry and community composition of iron- and sulfur-precipitating microbial mats at the Chefren mud volcano (Nile  Deep Sea Fan, Eastern Mediterranean).

Prokaryotic  active submarine mud volcano (Kazan mud volcano, East Mediterranean Sea).

anaerobic oxidation of methane

methane oxidizers at the underwater Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano, Barents Sea.
Methylobacter and Methylophaga species in the active volcano
tubeworms (Siboglinidae, formerly known as Pogonophora)
Beggiatoa species

The HMMV  three key communities: aerobic methanotrophic bacteria (Methylococcales), anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME-2)  thriving below siboglinid tubeworms, and a previously undescribed clade of archaea (ANME-3)

Cesiribacter andamanensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from a soil sample of a mud volcano, Andaman  Islands, India.
[Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2010 Jul 23. [Epub ahead of print] ]
Srinivas TN, Kumar PA, Madhu S, Sunil B, Sharma TV, Shivaji S.

A novel Gram-staining-negative, rod shaped, non-motile bacterium, strain AMV16T, was isolated from a soil sample collected  from a mud volcano located in the Andaman Islands, India. The cell suspension was pale orange. Cells of the strain AMV16T  were positive for catalase, oxidase, lipase, ornithine decarboxylase and lysine decarboxylase and negative for gelatinase  and urease. The fatty acids were dominated by saturated fatty acids (62.3%), with a high abundance of saturated fatty acids  of C15:0 (28.7%), anteiso-C14:0 (15.1%), and unsaturated fatty acids of C16:1 omega9c (23.9%) and C18:1 omega9c (13.8%).  Strain AMV16T contained MK-4 and MK-7 as the major respiratory quinones and diphosphatidylglycerol and  phosphatidylethanolamine make up the phospholipid composition. The G + C content of DNA of the strain AMV16T was 50.9 mol%.  The BLAST sequence similarity search based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that species of the genus 'Marivirga' were  the nearest phylogenetic neighbors with a pairwise sequence similarity ranging from 89.9 to 90.0%. The phylogenetic  analyses indicated that the strain AMV16T clustered with 'Marivirga tractuosa' along with 'Marivirga sericea' with a  phylogenetic distance of 85.4% respectively, distinct from the clades represented by the other genera of the family  'Flammeovirgaceae'. Based on the above mentioned phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain AMV16T is proposed as  the representative of a novel genus and a new species, Cesiribacter andamanensis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of  Cesiribacter andamanensis gen. nov., sp. nov., is AMV16T (=DSM 22818T = CCUG 58431T).. Read more ...

South Tonga Arc submarine volcanoes
Zetaproteobacteria - iron (Fe) oxidizers

Bacterial diversity in Fe-rich hydrothermal sediments at two South Tonga Arc submarine volcanoes.
[Geobiology. 2010 Jun 1. [Epub ahead of print]]
Forget NL, Murdock SA, Juniper SK.
Department of Biology, University of Victoria, Petch Building 116, 3800 Finnerty Rd, Victoria, BC, Canada V8P 5C2.

Abstract Seafloor iron oxide deposits are a common feature of submarine hydrothermal systems. Morphological study of these  deposits has led investigators to suggest a microbiological role in their formation, through the oxidation of reduced Fe in  hydrothermal fluids. South Tonga Arc submarine volcanoes, have been isolated from a  few of these deposits but generally little is known about the microbial diversity associated with this habitat. In this  study, we characterized bacterial diversity in two Fe oxide samples collected on the seafloor of Volcanoes 1 and 19 on the  South Tonga Arc. We were particularly interested in confirming the presence of Zetaproteobacteria at these two sites and in  documenting the diversity of groups other than Fe oxidizers. Our results (small subunit rRNA gene sequence data) showed a  surprisingly high bacterial diversity, with 150 operational taxonomic units belonging to 19 distinct taxonomic groups. Both  samples were dominated by Zetaproteobacteria Fe oxidizers. This group was most abundant at Volcano 1, where sediments were  richer in Fe and contained more crystalline forms of Fe oxides. Other groups of bacteria found at these two sites include  known S- and a few N-metabolizing bacteria, all ubiquitous in marine environments. The low similarity of our clones with  the GenBank database suggests that new species and perhaps new families were recovered. The results of this study suggest  that Fe-rich hydrothermal sediments, while dominated by Fe oxidizers, can be exploited by a variety of autotrophic and  heterotrophic micro-organisms.

Kermadec  Arc north of New Zealand
Fe-oxidizing bacterium Mariprofundus ferrooxydan

Molecular comparison of bacterial communities within iron-containing flocculent mats associated with submarine volcanoes  along the Kermadec Arc.
[Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009 Mar;75(6):1650-7. Epub 2008 Dec 29.]
Hodges TW, Olson JB.
Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA.

Iron oxide sheaths and filaments are commonly found in hydrothermal environments and have been shown to have a biogenic  origin. These structures were seen in the flocculent material associated with two submarine volcanoes along the Kermadec  Arc north of New Zealand. Molecular characterization of the bacterial communities associated with the flocculent samples  indicated that no known Fe-oxidizing bacteria dominated the recovered clone libraries. However, clones related to the  recently described Fe-oxidizing bacterium Mariprofundus ferrooxydans were obtained from both the iron-containing flocculent  (Fe-floc) and sediment samples, and peaks corresponding to Mariprofundus ferrooxydans, as well as the related clones, were  observed in several of our terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles. A large group of  epsilonproteobacterial sequences, for which there is no cultured representative, dominated clones from the Fe-floc  libraries and were less prevalent in the sediment sample. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that several operational  taxonomic units appeared to be site specific, and statistical analyses of the clone libraries found that all samples were  significantly different from each other. Thus, the bacterial communities in the Fe-floc samples were not more closely  related to each other than to the sediment communities..

Chefren mud volcano (Nile  Deep Sea Fan, Eastern Mediterranean).
sulfide-oxidizing epsilonproteobacterium  "Candidatus Arcobacter sulfidicus."
Fe(II)-oxidizing betaproteobacterium Leptothrix ochracea.

Biogeochemistry and community composition of iron- and sulfur-precipitating microbial mats at the Chefren mud volcano (Nile  Deep Sea Fan, Eastern Mediterranean).
[Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008 May;74(10):3198-215. Epub 2008 Mar 31.]
Omoregie EO, Mastalerz V, de Lange G, Straub KL, Kappler A, Røy H, Stadnitskaia A, Foucher JP, Boetius A.
Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany.

In this study we determined the composition and biogeochemistry of novel, brightly colored, white and orange microbial mats  at the surface of a brine seep at the outer rim of the Chefren mud volcano. These mats were interspersed with one another,  but their underlying sediment biogeochemistries differed considerably. Microscopy revealed that the white mats were  granules composed of elemental S filaments, similar to those produced by the sulfide-oxidizing epsilonproteobacterium  "Candidatus Arcobacter sulfidicus." Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that microorganisms targeted by a "Ca.  Arcobacter sulfidicus"-specific oligonucleotide probe constituted up to 24% of the total the cells within these mats.  Several 16S rRNA gene sequences from organisms closely related to "Ca. Arcobacter sulfidicus" were identified. In contrast,  the orange mat consisted mostly of bright orange flakes composed of empty Fe(III) (hydr)oxide-coated microbial sheaths,  similar to those produced by the neutrophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing betaproteobacterium Leptothrix ochracea. None of the 16S  rRNA gene sequences obtained from these samples were closely related to sequences of known neutrophilic aerobic Fe(II)- oxidizing bacteria. The sediments below both types of mats showed relatively high sulfate reduction rates (300 nmol x cm(- 3) x day(-1)) partially fueled by the anaerobic oxidation of methane (10 to 20 nmol x cm(-3) x day(-1)). Free sulfide  produced below the white mat was depleted by sulfide oxidation within the mat itself. Below the orange mat free Fe(II)  reached the surface layer and was depleted in part by microbial Fe(II) oxidation. Both mats and the sediments underneath  them hosted very diverse microbial communities and contained mineral precipitates, most likely due to differences in fluid  flow patterns.

iron-reducing bacteria

Environmental processes mediated by iron-reducing bacteria.
[Curr Opin Biotechnol. 1996 Jun;7(3):287-94.]
Fredrickson JK, Gorby YA.
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Washington 99352, USA. jk-

Considerable progress has been made towards enhancing our understanding of the phylogeny, ecology and biogeochemical role  of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria. The known phylogenetic range of iron-reducing bacteria has expanded considerably,  as has the known range of iron minerals that serve as a source of Fe(III) for anaerobic respiration. In addition, the  number of biotechnological applications of iron-reducing bacteria, including remediation of soils and sediments  contaminated with metals, radionuclides and organics, is rapidly expanding.

Kazan mud volcano, East  Mediterranean Sea

methane oxidizers at the underwater Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano, Barents Sea.
Methylobacter and Methylophaga species in the active volcano
tubeworms (Siboglinidae, formerly known as Pogonophora)
Beggiatoa species

Prokaryotic community structure and diversity in the sediments of an active submarine mud volcano (Kazan mud volcano, East  Mediterranean Sea).
[FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2010 Jun;72(3):429-44. Epub 2010 Mar 3.]
Pachiadaki MG, Lykousis V, Stefanou EG, Kormas KA.
Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Voutes-Heraklion, Greece.

We investigated 16S rRNA gene diversity at a high sediment depth resolution (every 5 cm, top 30 cm) in an active site of  the Kazan mud volcano, East Mediterranean Sea. A total of 242 archaeal and 374 bacterial clones were analysed, which were  attributed to 38 and 205 unique phylotypes, respectively (> or = 98% similarity). Most of the archaeal phylotypes were  related to ANME-1, -2 and -3 members originating from habitats where anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) occurs, although  they occurred in sediment layers with no apparent AOM (below the sulphate depletion depth). Proteobacteria were the most  abundant and diverse bacterial group, with the Gammaproteobacteria dominating in most sediment layers and these were  related to phylotypes involved in methane cycling. The Deltaproteobacteria included several of the sulphate-reducers  related to AOM. The rest of the bacterial phylotypes belonged to 15 known phyla and three unaffiliated groups, with  representatives from similar habitats. Diversity index H was in the range 0.56-1.73 and 1.47-3.82 for Archaea and Bacteria,  respectively, revealing different depth patterns for the two groups. At 15 and 20 cm below the sea floor, the prokaryotic  communities were highly similar, hosting AOM-specific Archaea and Bacteria. Our study revealed different dominant phyla in  proximate sediment layers.

Novel microbial communities of the Haakon Mosby mud volcano and their role as a methane sink.
[Nature. 2006 Oct 19;443(7113):854-8.]
Niemann H, Lösekann T, de Beer D, Elvert M, Nadalig T, Knittel K, Amann R, Sauter EJ, Schlüter M, Klages M, Foucher JP,  Boetius A.
Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, 28359 Bremen, Germany.

Mud volcanism is an important natural source of the greenhouse gas methane to the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Recent  investigations show that the number of active submarine mud volcanoes might be much higher than anticipated (for example,  see refs 3-5), and that gas emitted from deep-sea seeps might reach the upper mixed ocean. Unfortunately, global methane  emission from active submarine mud volcanoes cannot be quantified because their number and gas release are unknown. It is  also unclear how efficiently methane-oxidizing microorganisms remove methane. Here we investigate the methane-emitting  Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV, Barents Sea, 72 degrees N, 14 degrees 44' E; 1,250 m water depth) to provide quantitative  estimates of the in situ composition, distribution and activity of methanotrophs in relation to gas emission. The HMMV  hosts three key communities: aerobic methanotrophic bacteria (Methylococcales), anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME-2)  thriving below siboglinid tubeworms, and a previously undescribed clade of archaea (ANME-3) associated with bacterial mats.  We found that the upward flow of sulphate- and oxygen-free mud volcano fluids restricts the availability of these electron  acceptors for methane oxidation, and hence the habitat range of methanotrophs. This mechanism limits the capacity of the  microbial methane filter at active marine mud volcanoes to <40% of the total flux.

Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano, Barents Sea

methane oxidizers at the underwater Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano, Barents Sea.
Methylobacter and Methylophaga species in the active volcano
tubeworms (Siboglinidae, formerly known as Pogonophora)
Beggiatoa species

Diversity and abundance of aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidizers at the Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano, Barents Sea.
[Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007 May;73(10):3348-62. Epub 2007 Mar 16.]
Lösekann T, Knittel K, Nadalig T, Fuchs B, Niemann H, Boetius A, Amann R.

Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Celsiusstr. 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany.

Submarine mud volcanoes are formed by expulsions of mud, fluids, and gases from deeply buried subsurface sources. They are  highly reduced benthic habitats and often associated with intensive methane seepage. In this study, the microbial diversity  and community structure in methane-rich sediments of the Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV) were investigated by comparative  sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes and fluorescence in situ hybridization. In the active volcano center, which has a  diameter of about 500 m, the main methane-consuming process was bacterial aerobic oxidation. In this zone, aerobic  methanotrophs belonging to three bacterial clades closely affiliated with Methylobacter and Methylophaga species accounted  for 56%+/-8% of total cells. In sediments below Beggiatoa mats encircling the center of the HMMV, methanotrophic archaea of  the ANME-3 clade dominated the zone of anaerobic methane oxidation. ANME-3 archaea form cell aggregates mostly associated  with sulfate-reducing bacteria of the Desulfobulbus (DBB) branch. These ANME-3/DBB aggregates were highly abundant and  accounted for up to 94%+/-2% of total microbial biomass at 2 to 3 cm below the surface. ANME-3/DBB aggregates could be  further enriched by flow cytometry to identify their phylogenetic relationships. At the outer rim of the mud volcano, the  seafloor was colonized by tubeworms (Siboglinidae, formerly known as Pogonophora). Here, both aerobic and anaerobic methane  oxidizers were found, however, in lower abundances. The level of microbial diversity at this site was higher than that at  the central and Beggiatoa species-covered part of the HMMV. Analysis of methyl-coenzyme M-reductase alpha subunit (mcrA)  genes showed a strong dominance of a novel lineage, mcrA group f, which could be assigned to ANME-3 archaea. Our results  further support the hypothesis of Niemann et al. (54), that high methane availability and different fluid flow regimens at  the HMMV provide distinct niches for aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophs.

Observational evidence for volcanic impact on sea level and the global water  cycle.   [Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Dec 11;104(50):19730-4. Epub 2007  Dec 3.]
Grinsted A, Moore JC, Jevrejeva S.
Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, PL122, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland.

It has previously been noted that there are drops in global sea level (GSL)  after some major volcanic eruptions. However, observational evidence has not  been convincing because there is substantial variability in the global sea  level record over periods similar to those at which we expect volcanoes to  have an impact. To quantify the impact of volcanic eruptions we average  monthly GSL data from 830 tide gauge records around five major volcanic  eruptions. Surprisingly, we find that the initial response to a volcanic  eruption is a significant rise in sea level of 9 +/- 3 mm in the first year  after the eruption. This rise is followed by a drop of 7 +/- 3 mm in the  period 2-3 years after the eruption relative to preeruption sea level. These  results are statistically robust and no particular volcanic eruption or  ocean region dominates the signature we find. Neither the drop nor  especially the rise in GSL can be explained by models of lower oceanic heat  content. We suggest that the mechanism is a transient disturbance of the  water cycle with a delayed response of land river runoff relative to ocean  evaporation and global precipitation that affects global sea level. The  volcanic impact on the water cycle and sea levels is comparable in magnitude  to that of a large El Niño-La Niña cycle, amounting to approximately 5% of  global land precipitation.
Hydrothermal Underwater Volcanoes and Bacteria
iron, sulfur, methane eating bateria
Knowledge, Fun, Experience,
Underwater Volcano Eruption
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Iceland underwater volcano eruptions create Surtsey Island
Methane Eating Bacteria Found in the Icy Artic Water Erupting Underwater Voclano
Molokini Crater Hawaii  - underwater volcano
Scientists study the bacteria that live in the soil or the water around hydrothermal  volcanos.  Bacteria are different in different parts of the world.  These bacteria can live in harsh environments and are nourished from the iron, sulfur or methane that comes from the volcano. 
    We can use these same bacteria for energy or health purposes.  They can be used to uncontaminate soils that have too much iron, metals, radionuclides and organics.
Although it can take hundreds of thousands of years, underwater volcanos create new islands.  When they erupt the new lava flow covers the old one. Eventually it will break the waters suface and create an island. The island of Surtsey in Iceland is another example that took less than 50 years. The underwater volcano was 130m below sea level in November 1963. Surtsey today is being studied by scientists to learn about what type of life can grow there, and the geology of the island.
Hydrothermal Underwater Volcanoes and Bacteria

ICELAND - Eyjafjallajokull
airplanes in Europe
gas plumes travels

    It is located on the southern part of Iceland.  It has erupted twice throughout this year and has caused many air traffic problems.  
. Read more ...

Hawaii - Kilauea
indoor air quality,
breathing silica ash particles
bronchitis, emphysema, asthma

    Kilauea is located on the southeast part of Hawaii Island, Hawaii.  In the Hawaii religion they believe that the goddess of volcanoes, Pele, lives on this volcano.. Read more ...

COSTA RICA - Arenal, Geotourism
  On almost a daily basis, red-hot rocks crash down its steep slopes and volcanic grumbles produce huge ash columns above the crater. Read more ...

New Zealand - Ruapehu
crops, livestock, vegetation

   It is the highest point in the North Island and includes three major peaks: Tahurangi (2,797 m), TeHeuheu (2,755 m) and Paretetaitonga (2,751 m). . Read more ...

ITALY - Mount Etna
Volcano Mercury - Soil, Water

  It is the largest active volcano in Europe, currently standing 3,329 metres (10,922 ft) high, though this varies with summit eruptions; the mountain is 21 m (69 ft) lower now than it was in 1981. Read more ...

Guatemala - Pacaya
Lava, Boulders,
buildings, transportation, communication, power outages

  After being dormant for a century, it erupted violently in 1965 and has been erupting continuously since then.
                   Read more ...

Italy - Mount Vesuvius
Ancient Volcanoes

    Mount Vesuvius is best known for its eruption in AD 79 that led to the destruction of the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum.

Indonesia - Krakatoa
Krakatoa, also known as Krakatow, is another still-dangerous volcanic island, located in Indonesia in the Sunda Strait.

Underwater Hydrothermal Volcanoes
Bacteria from Volcanoes
Bacteria that live near underwater can metabolize Iron, Sulfur and Methane.

Olympus Mons is the largest volcano on Mars.  Scientists study volcanoes on earth to compare to volcanoes on Mars.